parabolan dosage

Parabolan dosage refers to narcotic pain relievers (opioid analgesics). Like morphine and fentanyl is the opioid receptor agonist. Activates the endogenous antinociceptive system and thus violates the interneuron transmission of pain impulses at various levels of the central nervous system, as well as changes the emotional pain by acting on the higher parts of the brain.
On pharmacologically similar to morphine: it increases the pain threshold for pain stimuli of different modalities, depresses conditioned reflexes, has a mild sedative effect.
in contrast to morphine, to a lesser extent inhibits the respiratory center, and less likely to cause nausea and vomiting, has a moderate effect on the bronchi and the ureters, similar to morphine for spazmogennoe effect on bile duct and intestine. Tone and contractile activity of the myometrium  several strengthens.
The drug has a rapid analgesic effect when administered parenterally. The duration of action is 2-4 hours.

Indications
Used in adults and children as an analgesic for pain of moderate to severe intensity, especially of traumatic origin, in the preoperative, operative and postoperative periods, myocardial infarction and severe attacks of angina.
The drug is effective in pain syndromes associated with spasm . of smooth muscles of internal organs (in combination with atropine and antispasmodic), pain in malignant tumors, including those in chronic pain syndrome
in obstetric practice  used for pain relief in labor – undesirable effects on the fetus does not have a drug in normal doses.

Dosing and Administration
Promedol administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, and, in extreme cases, intravenously. Adult subcutaneously and intramuscularly from 0.01 g to 0.04 g (1 ml of a 1% solution of 2 ml of 2% solution).During anesthesia fractional doses of the drug is administered intravenously by 0,003g-, ’01
When the parabolan dosage pain caused by spasm of smooth muscle (liver, kidney, intestinal colic),  should be combined with atropine and antispasmodics with careful monitoring of the patient’s condition.
For premedication prior anesthesia is administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly 0.02 g -0.03 g, together with atropine (0.0005 g) for 30-40 minutes before surgery.
anesthesia delivery is carried subcutaneous or intramuscular administration of the drug in doses of 0.02 g – 0.04 g when opening the throat of 3-4 cm, and the satisfactory condition of the fetus.
analgesic has antispasmodic effect on the cervix, accelerating its disclosure. The last dose administered for 30 – 60 minutes prior to delivery in order to avoid drug depression fetus and newborn.
Side effects:
In rare cases, there may be nausea, dizziness, muscle weakness, feeling light intoxication (euphoria), which usually pass on their own. In such cases it is necessary to reduce the subsequent dose. With repeated use promedola may develop addiction (weakening of the analgesic effect) and opioid drug dependence.
Promedol difficult to perform work that requires a high rate of mental and physical reactions (driving vehicles, operating machinery, appliances, etc.).

Overdose (intoxication) drug
If poisoning or overdose develops stuporous or comatose, there is respiratory depression. A characteristic feature is a pronounced constriction of the pupils (pupils with significant hypoxia may be extended).First aid – to maintain adequate pulmonary ventilation. Intravenous administration of a specific opioid antagonist naloxone (intrenon, Narcan, narkanti) at a dose of 0.4 mg to 2.0 mg fast restores breathing. If no effect within 2-3 minutes of administration of naloxone is repeated. The initial dose of naloxone for children – 0.01 mg / kg. It is possible using nalorphine 5 – 10 mg intramuscularly or intravenously every 15 minutes to a total dose of 40 mg. Note possibility of withdrawal symptoms upon administration of naloxone and nalorphine patients addiction to morphine or promedol – in such cases the dose should be increased gradually antagonists.

 

Contraindications
State, accompanied by parabolan dosage respiratory depression. With caution in patients with a history of which has a reference to addiction to opioids.

Interaction with other drugs
Promedol should be used with caution on the background of anesthetic drugs, hypnotics and neuroleptics in order to avoid excessive depression of the central nervous system and the suppression of the respiratory center activity.
Promedol should not be combined with narcotic analgesics from the group of partial agonists (buprenorphine) and agonists opioid receptor antagonists (albufin, butorphanol, tramadol) at risk of weakening analgesia.
analgesic effect and adverse effects of opioid agonists (morphine, fentanyl) in the therapeutic dose range summed with promedol effects.